Fold mountains

KS2 Geography: Mountains – BBC Teach

Degraft:

I am in Wales, I am discovering the highest mountain in the country – Snowdon. It takes several hours to go up and down. But luckily there is also a train you can take.

The mountains are elevated areas, rising more than 600 meters from the surrounding land. And often they are found in groups called mountain ranges. This is Snowdon. The summit, or summit of the mountain, rises to over 1000m and is part of a mountain range called Snowdonia. Later, Iola locals and Oliver will help me think about climbing mountains and how you can prepare.

But first, let’s zoom out. Snowdon is here in North Wales. The highest mountain in the UK is actually in Scotland and is called Ben Nevis. Slieve Donard is the highest in Northern Ireland. And Scafell Pike is the highest mountain in England.

Mount Everest is perhaps the most famous mountain in the world. It has the highest peak above sea level at 8,848 meters. Mount Everest is part of the Himalayan mountain range in Asia, where many of the tallest mountains in the world are located. The Earth’s surface is made up of different sections called tectonic plates. Most mountains are fold mountains, meaning they are created when two tectonic plates collide and force the ground where they meet. Like that…

Other mountains are created by ancient volcanoes. These are often individual peaks. Ben Nevis in Scotland and Snowdon here in Wales were once very large active volcanoes. Their last eruption dates back millions of years. Another interesting thing about mountains is that they can affect the weather as clouds carrying water droplets are pushed up and over the physical barrier of the summit they move into the sky. air, lose their energy, then lose their charge in the form of precipitation: rain, hail, snow or ice.

I meet Oliver and Iola at the bottom, or base, of Snowdon. We prepare our backpacks for a hike.

What kind of things do you have in your backpack?

Olivier :

I have an emergency survival kit. First, we have a whistle, to make sure people know where you are and if someone is in danger.

Yola:

If you’re going up the mountain and you’re really thirsty, you’re going to need a drink. If you don’t drink, you can sometimes get a little tired, so it’s good to always stay hydrated.

Degraft:

Nice. So we have a map here. Do you know what the numbers and lines mean?

Olivier :

The numbers mean how high the mountain is.

Yola:

The more orange lines there are together, the more that means it would be steeper to climb.

Degraft:

Yeah, you’re pretty much there. We call these outlines. The closer the lines are to each other, the steeper the hill or mountain. The further apart they are, the gentler the slope. Now we can use the contours to help us plan a route when we hike, to decide whether we want to hike a steeper route or a gentler slope.

What do you think the weather is like on top of a mountain?

Yola:

I think there would be a lot of wind and snow.

Degraft:

Yes you are right. Did you know that on high mountains, like Mount Everest, it’s so high that people need oxygen masks to help them breathe because the higher you go, the thinner the air becomes.

OK, time to compare… Snowdon is the same height as about 240 double-decker buses stacked on top of each other! Mont Blanc, one of the highest mountains in the Alps in Europe, rises to 4807 meters and has more than a thousand two-storey floors.

So, is there a hill or mountain near you that you could explore? Why not try to find it on a map? Zoom in and see for yourself.

Alright, go ahead then guys. But, just a double check, there’s a train we can take, isn’t there? Nope?